Prostate cancer: Early detection signs and prevention tips (2023)

In 2030, the worldwide burden of prostate cancer is expected to rise to 1.7 million new cases and 4,99,000 new deaths simply due to population growth and ageing as prostate cancer has become a major health problem in industrialized world during the last decades of the 21st century, contributing to 3/4th of the registered cases across the globe. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the sixth leading cause of cancer death among men globally.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in elderly men above the age of 65 to 70 years old and approximately four lakh males die from the disease every year due to prostate cancer. It is estimated that one in four to five males above the age of 70 develop prostate cancer, so the incidence is always on the rise however, with greater detection method greater awareness, the early stage diseases are detected more commonly as compared to late stage diseases.

Hence, the mortality rate in prostate cancer is very less with an almost 98% 10-year survival. Longer life expectancy in males has led to an increased incidence of prostate cancer in the community.

In an interview with HT Lifestyle, Dr TB Yuvaraja, Head Robotic Surgery and Consultant Surgical Uro Oncology at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital in Mumbai, said, “In the past, it was thought that prostate cancer prevalence in India was far lower than in western countries but with the increasing migration of rural people to urban areas, changing lifestyles, increasing awareness, and easy access to medical facilities, more cases of prostate cancer are being diagnosed, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that our prostate cancer rate is not too far behind western countries.”

He added, “In recent years, indication for genetic testing in prostate cancer have expanded from patients with a family history of prostate cancer to those with advanced castration-resistant disease, and even to early prostate cancer patients for determination of the appropriateness of active surveillance. Inherited genetic mutation can significantly increase the risk for prostate cancer, may be associated with aggressive disease and poorer outcomes, and can have hereditary cancer implications for men and their families. Germline genetic testing is strongly recommended for patients with advanced/metastatic Prostate cancer, particularly given the impact on targeted therapy selection.”

The health expert asserted, “Our ultimate goal is to prevent men from developing prostate cancer in the first place. In recent decades, metastatic prostate cancer has undergone significant improvements in terms of treatment. It’s certainly an encouraging time for prostate cancer with all the new therapeutic options that are emerging. Nevertheless, if the present trends continue, this disease can become a far greater public health problem.”

Early Detection Signs:

According to Dr Preetam Kumar Jain, Senior Consultant Oncologist and Hematologist at Masina Hospital in Mumbai, screening is the process of detecting cancer in people before they develop symptoms. He suggested, “Screening can help detect cancers at an earlier stage, when they are more likely to be treatable. If in case the discovery of prostate cancer is because of screening, it can be that it can be an earlier stage which in turn may be more treatable. However, note that there still may be issues revolving around screening process even if it might appear to imply that Prostate Cancer screening is always beneficial. Thus, it is unclear of whether the benefits of the screening process outweigh the risks for most men.”

(Video) 10 Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer

Bringing her expertise to the same, Dr Santoshi Nagaonkar, Director Urology, Director Urological Oncology and Director of Robotic Surgery at Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital in Mumbai, said, “The most frequent form of cancer among men is prostate cancer. As people get older, this cancer occurs more frequently. Stages 1 and 2 are theoretically curable at this point, however Stages 3 and 4 are advanced (non-curative). The PSA blood test is used to diagnose this cancer. The same blood test is used to check on individuals who have already received treatment.”

He insisted, “It goes without saying that the PSA blood test, a visit to the urologist, and any additional radiological scans on the doctor's advice would be included in the follow-up assessment together with the PSA blood test. Prostate cancer in its Initial stages, may not show much symptoms.” As per him, the early signs of prostate cancer can include the following:

1. An inability to urinate.

2. A slow, irregular urine flow


Dr Preetam Kumar Jain explained, “Prostate cancers are very common after the age of 70 due to major hormonal changes in the body. The emergence of Dihydrotestosterone in the body is a very strong precursor to much development of prostate cancer. The elderly age, patients who have prostate cancer nowadays are also more prone to get detected early due to increase a greater incidence of benign hypertrophy or prostate which later gets detected as cancer as well as screening and other methods that are being used. Due to this, in some of the rates or results are much better, with majority of the people surviving for long periods of time.”

Dr Santoshi Nagaonkar said, “In the post-Covid period, several patients experienced delayed diagnosis, which led to the presentation of multiple individuals with advanced disease. Additionally, those who were undergoing any type of treatment, including radiation, hormone, or chemotherapy, had their medical care delayed since Covid patients were given precedence. Shorter PSA doubling times (sub 3 months) indicated an aggressive form of the disease and required more regular PSA testing in cancer patients.”

Prevention Tips:

(Video) Prostate Cancer Signs | Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer

Dr Preetam Kumar Jain highlighted, “There is no assured way to avoid prostate cancer. Many risk factors, including age, race, and family history, are uncontrollable. However, there are some things you can do to reduce your risk of prostate cancer. Avoiding cancer risk factors may aid in the prevention of certain cancers. Obesity, lifestyle choices like smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and not exercising are all probable risk factors. Increasing protective factors like quitting smoking and exercising may also aid in the prevention of some cancers.”

He added, “There is no definitely method to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Certain risk factors are irreversible such as age, personal history, family history and genetic susceptibility. However, there are studies that reversible risk factors when controlled can help in reducing the risk of prostate cancers.” Some of them are as follows:

1. Healthy lifestyle

2. Regular exercise, like 20 minutes a day, 5 days a week

3. Avoid Obesity

4. Maintain Body mass index

5. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables

6. Diets rich in antioxidants

(Video) Screening and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer: Options for Prostate Cancer

7. Diets decrease in high dairy products and calcium content

8. Avoid diet containing red and processed meats..

9. Some studies say that drugs that inhibit 5 alpha reductase inhibitors and aspirin ,may reduce the reduce the risk of prostate cancer and it's mortality.. However, they are not FDA recommended as of now.

10. Identifying early symptoms of prostate related problem can make you alert. Symptoms like frequent micturition, incomplete voiding of urine, nocturia, could be possible signs of prostate related problems

11. If you have a family history of prostate cancer, then the subsequent generation members are at a risk of prostate cancer, atleast a decade Earlier. Knowing this genetic susceptibility, you may have to remain alert as your age advances.

12. New genetic studies are in the pipeline for better understanding of the prostate cancer. Mutation analysis like BRCA and HRR testing are now being recommended in patient with prostate cancer.

Dr Santoshi Nagaonkar highlighted, “Prostate cancer progresses among all malignancies comparatively more slowly. Therefore, periodic PSA evaluation is part of the usual evaluation that is performed with a three-month interval for patients who have finished their treatment (surgical removal) or patients undergoing any type of treatment (hormone or chemotherapy).”

Sharing his expert advice, he suggested the following prevention tips -

(Video) Prostate Cancer: Signs And Symptoms To Look Out For

1. Keep an Ideal Weight: Obesity can increase the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. In general, shedding pounds and keeping them off as you age can help reduce your chance of cancer and a host of other illnesses.

2. Consistent Exercise: In addition to supporting you in achieving a healthy weight, exercise can help battle some of the harmful health impacts of a sedentary lifestyle, reduce inflammation, and boost immune function.


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prostate cancercancer diagnosiscancerfitnessfitness inspirationfitness goalhealthtreatmentdoctors+ 6 more

(Video) How is Prostate Cancer Detected? Early Detection of Prostate Cancer


How can you prevent prostate cancer early? ›

There's no proven prostate cancer prevention strategy. But you may reduce your risk of prostate cancer by making healthy choices, such as exercising and eating a healthy diet. If you're concerned about your risk of prostate cancer, you may be interested in prostate cancer prevention.

What is the best way to detect prostate cancer early? ›

Prostate cancer can often be found early by testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a man's blood. Another way to find prostate cancer is the digital rectal exam (DRE). For a DRE, the doctor puts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel the prostate gland.

What are the 3 crucial prostate cancer symptoms that everyone should know about? ›

Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
  • Problems urinating, including a slow or weak urinary stream or the need to urinate more often, especially at night.
  • Blood in the urine or semen.
  • Trouble getting an erection (erectile dysfunction or ED)
Aug 1, 2019

What foods fight prostate cancer? ›

There is some evidence that vegetables — particularly cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts and bok choy — may be associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer.

What can slow down prostate cancer? ›

Diet and Exercise

It's early yet, but some research shows a healthy diet and regular exercise can slow the progress of prostate cancer. More studies are under way. In the meantime, cut back on sugar. Eat leaner meats and lots of colorful fruits and veggies.

At what age does prostate cancer usually begin? ›

Risk of prostate cancer

About 6 cases in 10 are diagnosed in men who are 65 or older, and it is rare in men under 40. The average age of men at diagnosis is about 66.

Can prostate cancer be curable if detected early? ›

Caught in its early stages, prostate cancer can be cured and treated with more manageable side effects to patients. However, caught too late, it can have many serious effects on the lives of patients and their families.

What age should prostate cancer screening begin? ›

(See "Risk factors for prostate cancer".) Average-risk men – We suggest initiating discussion of screening for prostate cancer at age 50 years for average-risk men as long as life expectancy is at least 10 years.

What is the number 1 symptom of prostate cancer? ›

Weak or interrupted flow of urine. Urinating often, especially at night. Trouble emptying the bladder completely. Pain or burning during urination.

Who is most likely to get prostate cancer? ›

The most common risk factor is age. The older a man is, the greater the chance of getting prostate cancer. Some men are at increased risk for prostate cancer. You are at increased risk for getting or dying from prostate cancer if you are African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer.

Can you have prostate cancer for years without knowing? ›

Prostate cancer often gets worse slowly, and you may have it for years without symptoms. During this time, you may not need treatment. If your cancer is more likely to spread, you may decide to have surgery or radiotherapy that aims to cure the cancer. However, these treatments can have side effects.

What are the red flags for prostate cancer? ›

A painful or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation. Frequent urination, particularly at night. Difficulty stopping or starting urination. Sudden erectile dysfunction.

What is the life expectancy of a man with prostate cancer? ›

Survival for all stages of prostate cancer

more than 95 out of 100 (more than 95%) will survive their cancer for 1 year or more. more than 85 out of 100 (more than 85%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more. almost 80 out of 100 (almost 80%) will survive their cancer for 10 years or more.

How quickly does prostate cancer spread? ›

In many cases, prostate cancer is relatively slow-growing, which means that it can take years to become large enough to be detectable, and even longer to metastasize outside the prostate. However, some cases are more aggressive and need more urgent treatment.

What kills prostate cancer cells? ›

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill rapidly growing cells, including cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be administered through a vein in your arm, in pill form or both. Chemotherapy may be a treatment option for treating prostate cancer that has spread to other areas of the body.

Do bananas help the prostate? ›

Bananas exhibit protective effects on the prostate, thanks to the nutrients they contain. Some of these nutrients include fiber, vitamin C, vitamin B6, all of which are necessary for the health and function of the prostate gland.

Which fruit is best for prostate? ›

Diet and an enlarged prostate

Share on Pinterest Strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, and blackberries are recommended as part of an enlarged prostate diet. The prostate gland is controlled by powerful hormones known as the sex hormones, including testosterone.

What vitamins is good for prostate cancer? ›

Background. Every year, over 220,000 men die worldwide from prostate cancer, but there are no means of primary prevention. A number of studies have suggested that vitamin D is protective against prostate cancer, since vitamin D regulates the growth and differentiation of tumour cells.

Can prostate cancer go away naturally? ›

Jonathan Epstein, MD, director of surgical pathology at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore and a leading provider of second opinions on prostate exams, said in a terse email: "[Spontaneous remission] does not happen in prostate cancer.

What foods help repair prostate? ›

Here's a look at the top five foods to eat for a healthy prostate:
  • Cruciferous Vegetables. This class of vegetables includes things like cabbage, bok choy, kale, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. ...
  • Berries. ...
  • Fish. ...
  • Cooked Tomatoes. ...
  • Coffee & Tea.

What are the major causes of prostate cancer? ›

The following are also associated with an increased risk of advanced prostate cancer: Height, high body mass index, low physical activity, smoking, low tomato sauce consumption, high calcium intake, high linoleic acid intake, African-American race, and a positive family history.

Can you live with Stage 1 prostate cancer? ›

Stage 1 is the least advanced form of prostate cancer. Cancer in this stage is small and hasn't spread past the prostate gland. It's characterized by a PSA of less than 10 ng/mL, a grade group score of 1, and a Gleason score of 6. Stage 1 prostate cancer has a 5-year survival rate of nearly 100 percent .

Can you get rid of prostate cancer? ›

There is no cure for metastatic prostate cancer, but it is often treatable for quite some time. Many people outlive their prostate cancer, even those who have advanced disease. Often, the prostate cancer grows slowly, and there are now effective treatment options that extend life even further.

Can you live 20 years after prostate cancer? ›

Our study shows that with long-term follow-up RP provides excellent oncological outcomes even at 20 years. While most men do require a multimodal treatment approach, many men can be managed successfully with RP alone.

Does prostate cancer progress quickly? ›

Prostate cancer tends to grow slowly over many years. Most men with early prostate cancer don't have changes that they notice. Signs of prostate cancer most often show up later, as the cancer grows.

Should prostate cancer be treated immediately? ›

While prostate cancer can be successfully treated when diagnosed early, it can also be slow-growing and does not always need to be actively treated if it is low risk and not causing serious harm to the patient. Because of this, some patients may choose not to get their cancer treated right away.

What is the gold standard for diagnosing prostate cancer? ›

For more than 30 years, the PSA test has been the gold standard in prostate cancer screening. This simple blood test measures how much prostate-specific antigen is in your blood.

Why is PSA screening no longer recommended? ›

In 2012, the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against screening all men with the PSA test, concluding that the benefits of the test, which measures levels of a protein often overproduced in prostate cancer cells, did not outweigh the risks.

What level of PSA indicates cancer? ›

There is no specific normal or abnormal level of PSA in the blood. In the past, PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL and lower were considered normal. However, some individuals with PSA levels below 4.0 ng/mL have prostate cancer and many with higher PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL do not have prostate cancer (1).

What hurts if you have prostate cancer? ›

Prostate cancer can spread to any area of bone around the body. It most commonly spreads to the spine. Pain in these areas can sometimes make it painful to walk and move around. The pain might remain in only one area, but over time it can spread to several parts of your body.

What increases the chances of prostate cancer? ›

Age. The risk of prostate cancer increases with age, especially after age 50. Around 60% of prostate cancers are diagnosed in people who are 65 or older. Older adults who are diagnosed with prostate cancer can face unique challenges, specifically with regard to cancer treatment.

Where is the first place prostate cancer spreads to? ›

In theory, prostate cancer cells can spread anywhere in the body. In practice, though, prostate cancer metastasis occurs most often in the lymph nodes and the bones. Prostate cancer metastasis occurs when cells break away from the tumor in the prostate.

What age does prostate cancer affect the most? ›

Age. Prostate cancer is rare in men younger than 40, but the chance of having prostate cancer rises rapidly after age 50. About 6 in 10 cases of prostate cancer are found in men older than 65.

Do you feel ill with prostate cancer? ›

You might feel or be sick. These problems may be caused by your cancer or by your treatments. Being worried about things can also affect your appetite. Problems eating or loss of appetite can lead to weight loss and can make you feel very tired and weak.

Do most men survive prostate cancer? ›

The 5-year survival rate for people with prostate cancer in the United States is 98%. The 10-year survival rate is also 98%. Approximately 84% of prostate cancers are found when the disease is in only the prostate and nearby organs. This is referred to as the local or regional stage.

What is the 20 year survival rate for prostate cancer? ›

The risk of a man dying of prostate cancer was 17% for men diagnosed before age 70 and was 21% for those diagnosed after age 70. The mean annual prostate cancer mortality rate calculated over the 20-year period post-diagnosis was 1.5%.

Who survived prostate cancer the longest? ›

Seals was 42 when his doctor diagnosed him Stage IV prostate cancer. Twelve years later, he is not only still alive but symptom-free—a testimony to both his personal grit and remarkably fast-evolving medical research. When Todd Seals received his death sentence, he was shocked but not surprised.

What is the best treatment for prostate cancer in early stages? ›

Active surveillance, surgery, and radiation therapy are the standard therapy choices for men with early-stage prostate cancer (see Types of Treatment, starting on page 8). Each has benefits (how treatments can help) and risks (problems treatment may cause). There is seldom just one right treatment choice.

What percent of prostate cancers are aggressive? ›

The majority of people with prostate cancer — nearly 80% — are diagnosed early and cured by their treatment, most often radiation or surgery. But one in five of those diagnosed with prostate cancer has a more aggressive form of the disease.

What is considered catching prostate cancer early? ›

Many doctors use a PSA cutoff point of 4 ng/mL or higher when deciding if a man might need further testing, while others might recommend it starting at a lower level, such as 2.5 or 3. Most men without prostate cancer have PSA levels under 4 ng/mL of blood.

What is the number one cause of prostate cancer? ›

The thing that raises your odds of having prostate cancer the most is age. If you're white and have no family history, your odds go up sharply at 50. If you're black or you have a close relative with prostate cancer, they jump up at 40. About two-thirds of all prostate cancers are diagnosed in men age 65 and older.

How do you keep your prostate healthy? ›

8 Tips for Better Prostate Health
  1. Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity is linked to several prostate health issues, including prostate cancer. ...
  2. Eat more vegetables. ...
  3. Reduce consumption of red meat. ...
  4. Know your risk and get tested. ...
  5. Exercise regularly. ...
  6. Hydrate daily. ...
  7. Manage stress. ...
  8. Stop smoking.

What puts you at higher risk for prostate cancer? ›

The most common risk factor is age. The older a man is, the greater the chance of getting prostate cancer. Some men are at increased risk for prostate cancer. You are at increased risk for getting or dying from prostate cancer if you are African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer.

Can stress cause prostate cancer? ›

Extreme stress can have an accumulative effect on the body's physiology, allowing prostate cancer to take root and grow. Staying positive and controlling your overall mental health, through diet, exercise, and maintaining a positive outlook is important in helping to prevent and control your disease.

Which man has the highest risk of prostate cancer? ›

Prostate cancer develops more often in African American men and in Caribbean men of African ancestry than in men of other races. And when it does develop in these men, they tend to be younger. Prostate cancer occurs less often in Asian American and Hispanic/Latino men than in non-Hispanic whites.

Is coffee good for the prostate? ›

Many studies have shown that drinking coffee may lower a man's risk of developing prostate cancer, delay the progression of the disease, and keep prostate cancer from coming back.

What is the best food to fight prostate? ›

Here's a look at the top five foods to eat for a healthy prostate:
  • Cruciferous Vegetables. This class of vegetables includes things like cabbage, bok choy, kale, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. ...
  • Berries. ...
  • Fish. ...
  • Cooked Tomatoes. ...
  • Coffee & Tea.

What are the first signs that prostate cancer has spread? ›

Prostate cancer can spread to the lymph nodes in the groin area, or to other parts of the body. The most common symptoms are swelling and pain around the area where the cancer has spread. Cancer cells can stop lymph fluid from draining away. This might lead to swelling in the legs due to fluid build up in that area.


1. Prostate cancer: warning signs, diagnosis and treatment
(Top Doctors UK)
2. Early Detection of Prostate Cancer: Navigating the Challenges in 2021
(Grand Rounds in Urology)
3. Prostate Cancer Early Detection 2021
(Grand Rounds in Urology)
4. Prostate Cancer Prevention, Detection and Treatment
(Holy Cross Health)
5. Dr. Oz Talks Prostate Cancer Screening And Treatment: What You Need To Know | TODAY
6. Making Decisions After Being Diagnosed with Early Stage Prostate Cancer | UCLAMDChat
(UCLA Health)
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